Main factors of ratios of the standing posture and groundwork in judo / Factores principales de la postura principal y la base en judo.


Ahmedov Farruh Shavkatovich,PhD student Samarkand State University, Uzbekistan, Faculty of Physical Education.

Ahmedov Farruh Shavkatovich1

1Samarkand State University, Faculty of Physical Education

Abstract: Scores taken by judoists are illustrate their preparedness and general model of the competitive activity. This factor is characterized crucial sides of the athletic performance and their training process. In judo athletes may take scores on standing fight (Nage waza) and fight in groundwork (Katame waza). However, judokas are not equal to take scores on standing and groundwork fight. The aim of this study is to compare standing fight and fight in groundwork ratios of judo athletes by weight categories and to identify reasons them. The special survey was conducted among the judokas. In our researches participated 61 judo athletes including international category athletes-6 (10%), master of sports-19 (31%), candidate of masters-29 (48%) and others-7 (11%). Furthermore, the 126 judo struggles analyzed held in Uzbekistan (men-63 and women-63). The study results show that the main scores were taken in standing fight for males (85%). While, females were more active fight in groundwork (25%). The biggest number of athletes consider (47%) that standing fight is more comfortable and fruitful. Additionally, low number of athletes (28%) pointed that they attend their focus on standing fight during training process. Ratios of the scores by weight and sex categories confirm how to plan training design. The results of this investigation may help coaches and athletes to effectively plan their technical and tactical training.


Key words: judo; competitive activity; ratios of scores; standing fight, fight in ground.




Current IJF-International Judo Federation Refereeing rules allow athletes earn scores on standing fight (Nage waza) and fight in groundwork (Katame waza) [1]. There are special charactesits in fight in standing and groundwork fight. Previous investigations show that standing fight is more specific for judokas. Mostly, judo athletes try to fight on standing. Because, some factors influence competitive activity of the athletes. For example, refereeing rules [2], weight and sex categories [3, 4] and others. Other studies confirm that audiences’ shouts are enough impact for struggle activity of the athletes [5].

Some judokas have an opportunity fight in standing. While, others are more effective chances fight in groundwork. However, they do not implement standing and groundwork techniques equally during the contests. Studies show that only small number of the athletes can use effectively groundwork techniques. But, Japanese judokas are more skilled fight in groundwork fight than others. Specialists try to understand reasons of this situation, but there is no enough investigation can’t explain main basis of this ratios. Whereas, there is not enough explanation that can help to understand why the athletes attempt to fight in standing. In our opinion this is a topical problem of the current judo theory and practice.

Ratios of the scores illustrate crucial part of the training. Analyzing the competitive activity of the athletes can give opportunity current model of the judo athletes’ struggle profile and their training scheme. According to the competitive activity, judo coaches may identify some typical sides of the judo athletes’ preparedness. Mostly, coaches give their attention on training process. They consider that training is a main factor influencing sporting results. It is undeniable fact that without the training athletes can not get any results. But the future training process must be organized according to the competitive model. It should be more fruitful when the trainers organize their preparing program according to demands of the current struggle models. The abovementioned points explain that competitive activity of the judo athletes and investigating it is a high significance modern judo. For this reason, we decided to identify current ratios of scores taken by different weight and sex category judo athletes and, second aim is to determining the causes that why the judo athletes attempt to fight in standing during the contests.


Materials and Methods

In our research we analyzed 126 judo contests which held in Uzbekistan. 63 male and 63 female athletes’ contests were checked and ratios of effective scores were identified by weight and sex categories. Percentages of standing fight (Nage waza) and fight in groundwork (Katame waza) were counted. Furthermore, the 61 judo athletes were interviewed (international category-10%, master of sports-31%, candidate of masters-48% and other qualification athletes-11%). The special questionnaire was made and the answers of the athletes were classified. Their average training experience were 8,49±3,65 year, and average age were 20,4±3,24 year. All participants of the study were introduced about the investigation and there are no any dissatisfactions of the athletes.



The table 1 shows percentages of the effective scores taken by the judokas in standing and groundwork fight on different weight and sex categories. Male athletes are more used standing techniques during the fights than females. 85% of the scores were acquired with standing fight and 15% scores fight in groundwork by male judo athletes. While, females were more successful fight in groundwork than males. The ratios of the scores in females 75% and 25% respectively.

The 56 scores were taken by male athletes and 51 scores in females fight in standing. Comparing to weight categories under 90kg male athletes acquired the most points by male judokas. The low percent was registered by over 100 kg judo athletes. Under 63kg female athletes were occupied the high indicator. They implemented 11 effective techniques standing fight. In contests of the females, over 78 kg female judo athletes took only 3 points standing fight (see table 1).

Considerable differences were recorded with sex categories. The male athletes were taken more lower scores in comparison to female athletes. Over the 100 kg male athletes were more successful in groundwork fight. While, under 60 kg athletes were the lowest score comparing the other weight categories and under 73 kg and under 100 kg athletes were not implemented effective scores in groundwork fight. Under the 78 kg female athletes were used the most scores in horizontal fight. They performed 4 successful techniques comparing to other weight categories. Whereas, there were no used any groundwork techniques by the under 48 kg female athletes (table 1).


Table 1. Percentages of scores in standing fight and groundwork fight by weight and sex categories

Men Scores Women Scores
Weight category Standing Fight Groundwork Fight Weight category Standing Fight Groundwork Fight
-60kg 9 1 -48kg 7
-66kg 7 3 -52kg 9 2
-73kg 9 -57kg 7 4
-81kg 9 2 -63kg 11 3
-90kg 11 2 -70kg 8 2
-100kg 8 -78kg 6 4
+100kg 3 2 -78kg 3 2
Total 56 10 Total 51 17
Percentages 85% 15% Percentages 75% 25%


The table 2 shows judo athletes’ opinions about fight in standing and horizontal fight. The following questions were given to identify bases of ratios of the scores. The big number of the athletes consider that they have more chances to implement techniques in standing (47%). Furthermore, 25% of the athletes think that this process is connected with the training. 25% athletes consider that fight in ground. The second question was about disadvantages of the fight in horizontal. The vast majority of the participants consider that during the contests the opponents can defend more effective than standing (67%). Other participants think that it is difficult to implement groundwork techniques (23%), and only 10% of athletes pointed that they know less techniques in horizontal fight.

Majority of the judo athletes consider that it is crucial to analyze skilled athletes’ struggle activity (84%). While, 16% of them emphasize that it is not important to analyze experienced athletes during the competitions (see table 2).


Table 2. Judo athletes’ opinions on fight standing and groundwork fight

Questions Answer 1 Answer 2 Answer 3
Why do you try to fight in standing? I have more chances in standing posture It is connected with training process It is more difficult to implement techniques fight in ground than standing fight
Percent 47% 28% 25%
What are the disadvantages of groundwork fight? The opponents defend more successful in horizontal fight It is difficult to apply techniques in horizontal fight I know less techniques in horizontal fight than standing posture
Percent 67% 23% 10%
What do you think, is it important to analyze the most experienced athletes’ struggle during the matches? Definitely, it is one of the most important side of preparing process It is not so important for me
Percent 84% 16%



The aim of this study was identifying ratios of scores by weight and sex categories. Moreover, determining the bases of why the athletes try to fight on standing was the second aim. As shown the table 1, the male athletes are more successful fighting in stand. Comparing by weight categories, under 90 kg judo athletes were acquired much more scores in standing (11). In contrast with other weight category athletes, they implement more effective techniques. Some studies confirm that according to weight categories combat activity changes [6]. In female athletes’ contests under 63 kg contestants were used the most effective standing techniques. They implemented 11 throwing techniques during the matches.

Our researches confirmed that different sex judo athletes implemented various competitive activity. The female contestants were more successful in fighting horizontal. Comparing the male athletes this structure was more less than females. Some previously investigations are similar with our opinions [7]. However, other findings on this topic are different from our results [8]. These differences demand to explore competitive activity of the judo athletes. These opinions show that ratios of the standing posture and groundwork techniques are changing.

As shown table 1, the majority of the athletes consider that they have more opportunities fighting in stand. For this reason, they try to fight on standing and main part of the effective techniques are taken on standing. We think it is connected with the training process of the athletes. The second answer confirmed abovementioned opinions by us. 28% participants confessed that in preparing process coaches attempt to teach throwing techniques. As a result, during the contests athletes implement more throwing techniques than groundwork fight.

In sport, the most skilled athletes implemented the high-level techniques and tactical actions. Analyzing of these kinds of actions is useful for both athletes and coaches. For instance, we decided to give following question: What do you think, is it important to analyze the most experienced athletes’ struggle during the matches? The major number of the judokas were considered that this is the influencing factor to sporting results (84%). These facts confirm that coaches and athletes should pay attention on experienced athletes’ competitive activity. Only 16% participants mentioned that this is not so crucial to analyze competitive activity of the skilled athletes.



In conclusion we can point that the most of the scores were taken on standing fight. These findings show that in training, coaches give the more attention to teach standing fight techniques than groundwork fight. Female athletes much more implemented successfully groundwork techniques. These findings may help to coaches planning their training design. They can optimize technical-tactical preparedness of the judo athletes according to our study findings. It should be more fruitful, when judo coaches give their focus teaching the both standing and ground techniques.


Conflicts of interests


The authors declared no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this manuscript.




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Corresponding Author:

PhD student of Samarkand State University, Faculty of Physical Education

Address: 140104, University blv. 15,

Samarkand сity, Samarkand region, Uzbekistan

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